Wednesday, September 2, 2020
To initially comprehend a dark gap, you should see how it is made. Most dark openings are delivered by biting the dust stars that have a mass multiple times more noteworthy than our sun. A star in the long run turns into a dark opening on the grounds that the vitality and weight pushing outward is overwhelmed by gravity that pushes internal. For huge stars the gravity power makes a star breakdown under its own weight. The star at that point will detonate as a supernova and some external pieces of the star are conveyed into space. The center is as yet flawless, and on the off chance that it has fell under its own weight, it will have shaped a star. This center is said to have almost zero volume, yet with unbounded thickness, known as a peculiarity. These dark openings that have now been made begin to develop. Be that as it may, how would they develop? They begin engrossing mass from materials that are near them. On the off chance that a material is said to enter a dark gaps occasion skyline, a point where nothing can get away from a dark holeÃ¢â¬â¢s gravity, the item would got retained and would be a piece of the dark gap. Most dark gaps expend a lot of gas and residue as their essential wellspring of Ã¢â¬Å"f...
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Social Anthropology - Essay Example His definition offers a total review of the topic of humanities and is broadly cited by many. This exposition currently characterizes culture and its qualities. Individuals in societies for the most part have a similar human social qualities (O'Neil, p. 5). In any case, numerous people have various methods of communicating these attributes that come about because of fluctuating societies and customs. This exposition used to think about the grouping of two way of life designs in North American Indian areas': the way of life of foragers and the way of life of horticulturalists to talk about and break down the likenesses and contrasts of the two societies comparable to their method of food creation, method of living and such. In his book Primitive Culture, Edward Tylor characterized culture as that intricate entire which incorporates information, conviction, expressions, ethics, law, custom, and some other capacities and propensities obtained by man as a citizen (Kottak 62; Scupin 43). He underlined on the last expression gained by man as a citizen for he accepted that culture isn't just obtained through natural legacy however living and being a piece of a general public also for they are progressively presented to social custom. His definition likewise proposes that culture incorporates all parts of human movement instruments, weapons, shoot, agribusiness, creature training, metallurgy, composing, planes, PCs, penicillin, atomic force, awesome, computer games, architect pants, religion, political frameworks, science, sports, and social associations. It includes each movement from the expressive arts, famous amusement, advancement of new innovation and even regular conduct. The procedure by which an individual learns their way of life is called enculturation (Kottak 62). An individual gets any social convention due to the limit of a person to learn. In spite of the fact that creatures gain as a matter of fact or from different individuals from their gathering, the social learning just creates inside the human ability to make images or signs. Social learning implies that individuals can make, recollect, and manage thoughts. As indicated by Kottak, culture is found out (Cultural Anthropology 63). Individuals start to disguise a set up gathering of implications and images that individuals use to characterize their reality, express their feelings, and make their decisions. This should be possible through a procedure of cognizant and oblivious learning and connection with others. Individuals transmit culture through perception where most kids adjust their own conduct in understanding to what their way of life involves as right or off-base or terrible or great. Culture is demonstrated to be gained unknowingly on account of the social convention that they do naturally without an immediate guidance to look after them. Anthropologists expressed that social learning is complicated among people and however people vary in their enthusiastic and mental capacities, individuals can even now get familiar with their social custom. Culture is likewise shared for it is a quality of people as well as of people as individuals from bunches also (Kottak 63). Individuals who experience childhood in a similar culture have shared their convictions, qualities, recollections, and
Friday, August 21, 2020
The repurchasing of offers by organizations is a risky monetary methodology as it builds the organization's equipping proportion - Essay Example Other than expanding the equipping proportion of the organization it impacts significant proportions. The effect of utilized buyback of offers on Vodafone Plc has been clarified with the assistance of subjective and numerical examination. The EPS diagram of the organization has been appeared for a multi year time span to feature the ascent in the profit per share because of a stock repurchase program. The weakening in the significant money related proportions like premium inclusion, return and so on has additionally been appeared with the assistance of reasonable charts. Presentation A declaration of an offer repurchase by an organization is esteemed profoundly by the market members deciphering it as a Ã¢â¬Ëbuy signalÃ¢â¬â¢ for its stock. So the organization has valid justifications to repurchase its stocks however some of the time these offer buyback programs go amiss. In spite of the prominence of such projects as clear from the ongoing buyback bargains there are concerns wheth er the firm or the investors get any increases from it. One explanation preferring the buyback bargain is that anytime of time the excess money lying with the administration can be utilized for buyback of offers subsequently restoring the assets to the investors. It has been seen that inactive money makes the chiefs smug so repurchasing of offers can be one method for ingraining certainty among the speculators. From the view-purpose of the organization stock buyback brings about expanded Earnings per share (EPS), share cost and builds the estimation of Ã¢â¬Å"executive stock optionsÃ¢â¬ (Ogilvie, 2006, p.51). Nonetheless, the offer buyback system can be hazardous if the organization funds the buyback of values utilizing obtained reserves. Financing buyback utilizing advance stock may glance enticing in the present moment yet a few years down the line the organization needs to take care of the advance. In case of a financial downturn the organization should battle with subsidize l ack. An ascent in the offer cost, increment in organization EPS are on the whole great signs yet not at the expense of jeopardizing the situation of the organization later on. The directorate must remember the interests of the investors while considering share buyback programs. Proof behind offer repurchases A critical research has been directed particularly in the territory of offer repurchases. The confirmations from this exploration demonstrate that there is a solid market reaction on the declaration of offer repurchase program. In the investigations directed by Asquith and Mullins (1983) and Damn et al (1981) it has been demonstrated that the market reacts decidedly to stock repurchase declarations, be it as a Ã¢â¬Å"open showcase repurchaseÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"a self delicate offerÃ¢â¬ . There have been irregular returns on account of offer repurchase offers. An investigation on long haul showcase returns, by C.J. Loomis broke down the repurchase offers during the period 1974 to 1983. His investigations uncovered that the investors of the organizations that embraced stock repurchase programs earned an exacerbated yearly return of 22.6% with the S&P 500 detailing an arrival of 14.1% during a similar period. In spite of the fact that the above confirmations bolster a positive reaction to the offer repurchase offers a few papers a few papers have featured the antagonism related with such projects. According to the papers against share repurchase, the stock repurchase choices by the organization show indications of poor monetary and working execution, in reality it flags that the
Thursday, June 4, 2020
A Critical Analysis of Egeus, Hippolyta and Shylock in Filmic Shakespeare - Literature Essay Samples
In Ã¢â¬ËThe Motives of EloquenceÃ¢â¬â¢, Lantham describes Shakespearean drama as the art of Ã¢â¬Å"superpositionÃ¢â¬ . One arc of action is performed over others so that Ã¢â¬Å"[d]ramatic motive is stronger than Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢, serious motiveÃ¢â¬ . The justification of a characters action occurs as theatre. Ã¢â¬Å"Drama, ceremony, is always needed to authenticate the experienceÃ¢â¬ . In a morally ambiguous play text, the characters dramatise their motives to justify their actions. While Lantham argues that this dramatisation occurs at the level of the playtext, it is my intent to argue that there is an analogous mechanism operating at the level of the play itself. Shakespearean comedy in particular seems to offer a preferred mode of justice, what I will refer to as comedic justice. Comedic justice is the sense that the play will arrive at a Ã¢â¬ËjustifiedÃ¢â¬â¢ ending Ã¢â¬â that Ã¢â¬Ëtrue loveÃ¢â¬â¢ will prevail and villainous characters will be punished for their actions. This comic justice acts to bring the play towards its obligatory, happy conclusion. In this sense, superposition occurs when other characters offer subjective justices: systems of justice that come from the needs of a character rather than a dramatic requirement. Although these subjective justices never triumph in a comedy, they are rarely the target of moralisation. These alternative justices make themselves apparent in production through their flexibility; simple directorial decisions can accentuate these justices, remove them or radically reposition their dominance. In both Max ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s and Michael HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of Ã¢â¬ËA Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream, the character of Egeus is conspicuously underplayed. While there is the potential for subversive justice, both directors cast him as an inconsequential villain; he is little more than a plot mechanism. ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËA Midsummer Nights DreamÃ¢â¬â¢ presents the audience with a rebellious Hippolyta. She presents a powerfully constructed alternative justice. This alternative is never dominant and eventually becomes absorbed into the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s comedic discourse. However, the film can make some claim to preserving the Ã¢â¬ËsuperpositionÃ¢â¬â¢ present in the play. This contrasts with Michael HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of the same play. In his film, HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s justice is reconstructed to act as a function of comedic justice. Of all the films discussed in this paper, the most radical adaptation occurs in Michael RadfordÃ¢â¬â¢s Shylock in Ã¢â¬ËThe Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬â¢. Like Egeus, it is possible to characterise Shylock as a discardable comedic villain, devoid of justification. It is equally possible to imagine Shylock as a variation on Hippolyta, a minority justice peripheral to the play. However, Radford chooses to undermine the comedic drive of the play and accentuate ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic potential. There is a comedic justice to th e film but its execution can only be achieved at ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s expense. Ultimately, the happy ending demanded by the form is undermined by ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering.A figure from classical mythology, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta comes prefigured with history and character. Her relationship with Theseus in the play is always glossed by reference to her capture and forced marriage. Theseus admits in the first scene, Ã¢â¬Å"I wooÃ¢â¬â¢d thee with the sword,/and won thy love doing thee injuriesÃ¢â¬ . ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of her character accentuates this tension. In contrast to TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢ jollity, Hippolyta appears disdainful, even vengeful. TeasdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s costuming establishes Hippolyta as an emblem of violent, Amazonian power. The snake draped around her shoulders recalls Eve the temptress and her headdress causes her to appear serpentine, herself. In a further nod to classical mythology, Hippolyta keeps her right breast covered throughout the first sc ene. This serves to remind the audience of the Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ behind HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s character and explain her discontent. From the opening of ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s film, we see a tragic figure out of place in a comedic setting. ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of Hippolyta is aligned against the tone of the opening scene and the play in general. Implicitly, she draws attention to her suffering and the injustice perpetrated against her. TeasdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s delivery of the lines Ã¢â¬Å"Four days will quickly steep themselves in nightÃ¢â¬ makes clear that Hippolyta wants nothing to do with Theseus. Here, Reinhardt rearranges the playtext so that these lines come after the introduction of the lovers rather than before. This further highlights HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s incongruity with the levity of the other characters. ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Theseus may feel justified but he is clearly operating by a system of justice to which Hippolyta does not subscribe. Her characterisation in the o pening scene is a representation of dissatisfaction with the dominant justice of the play. While her posited justice remains unrecognised, Reinhardt never gives the audience any moral grounds to deny Hippolyta. Her justice is subservient to the culture of the film but remains a valid alternative, nevertheless.HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s filmic adaptation of the same play treats HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s mythological history quite differently. The change in setting from classical Athens to Monte Athena in the 1800s significantly softens her character; ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta is angry and powerful while HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s is more innocent and playful. When Marceau delivers HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s opening lines, there is no hint of the disdain that TeasdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s performance shows for Theseus. This Hippolyta is clearly attracted to Theseus Ã¢â¬â even her rebuff of his sexual advance is flirtatious. In general, she seems more congruous with the comedic tone of the play. However, it is made apparent t hat HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta is also at odds with Athenian legality. HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to EgeusÃ¢â¬â¢ plea is silent but clearly sympathetic to the plight of Lysander and Hermia. Later, she shows her disapproval of TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢ ruling when she dismisses his boasting about Ã¢â¬Å"the music of [his] houndsÃ¢â¬ . Interestingly, despite the change in setting, Hoffman retains TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢ references to HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s classical prefiguration. As a result, the relationship between the two is more equivocal, if happier than ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation. Perhaps Hoffman is suggesting an arranged marriage between Theseus and Hippolyta, not unlike that between Demetrius and Hermia. If this is the case, her defence of Hermia can be read as a projection of her own desires. Regardless, it is clear that MarceauÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta is, like TeasdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s at odds with the dominant justice of the play; both posit a version of justice superimposed on the justice of At henian law. Despite this, both characters have different roles in their respective films. The justice of HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta is always working towards and contributing to the playÃ¢â¬â¢s happy ending. ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of the character acts against the comedy. Her justice is alternative, rather than true or false. The formerÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of justice is aligned with the true justice of the play Ã¢â¬â the justice that works towards the comedic ending. In contrast, the character of Egeus in the same play is very much aligned with the prevailing system of law. As a father, Ã¢â¬Å"the ancient privilege of AthensÃ¢â¬ to arrange HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage is his. His representation in both films is rather straightforward. He is an elderly man, whose motivation for patronising Demetrius seems rather weak. Lysander remains uncontradicted when he describes himself as being Ã¢â¬Å"as well derivÃ¢â¬â¢d as [Demetrius],/As well possessÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ . Critics ha ve suggested that EgeusÃ¢â¬â¢ preference for Demetrius may be motivated by homoerotic desire. Lysander mockingly suggests to Demetrius: Ã¢â¬Å"You have her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s love, Demetrius: Let me have HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s; do you marry him.Ã¢â¬ However, neither Hoffman nor Reinhardt makes any clear reference to this reading in their films. He is reduced to a disapproving father acting as plot mechanism, in the vein of Capulet, Brabantio and Polonius. Is it then possible to describe his motivations as justified, as he is represented in the films? In my opinion, he is but only in part. In this role, Egeus draws attention to the distinction between legalistic justice and moral or Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ justice. He is certainly opposed to the system of Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ justice that draws the play to its conclusion. However, unlike ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta, Egeus claims a justice that is not alternative but simply false.There is potential for a similar reading of Shylock in Ã¢â¬ËTh e Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬â¢. Whether the character is played Ã¢â¬Å"as a repulsive clown or as a monster of unrelieved evilÃ¢â¬ , he extols false justice. Palmer suggests that even at his most desperate, there is always potential for grotesque comedy in ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s lines. The concept of legality as an obstacle to justice is recurrent theme in the play. PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s chests prevent her from marrying as she chooses and AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s bond threatens to undo a happy, comedic ending. Legalism in the play is always overcome through conceit, justified only by the playÃ¢â¬â¢s comedic tone. Portia provides a hint to Bassanio through rhyme in the music and settles AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s bond through a questionable loophole. In these interpretations of the play, Shylock is comparable to Egeus: erroneous and vindictive rather than justified. There is always the possibility, however, of a sympathetic reading of Shylock. It is hard to imagine an interpretation of his Ã¢â¬Å"Hath not a Je w eyes?Ã¢â¬ speech that fails to evoke some degree of sympathy. RadfordÃ¢â¬â¢s filmic adaptation of the play adopts a variation on this interpretation. In this film, ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s potential as a comedic villain is ignored and he is repositioned as a tragic figure. The film begins with a montage that demonstrates the cruelty of the Christian population towards the Jewish inhabitants of the city. Palmer notes that all characters in Ã¢â¬ËThe Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬â¢ exhibit questionable moral judgement. Bassanio and Antonio appear to exist in an unhealthy state of co-dependency. PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s harsh treatment of Shylock contradicts her earlier references to the benefits of mercy. Radford chooses to emphasise these elements of the play and complicate the vicarious happiness of the main characters, therefore. In this film, ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s justice is not a false justice like that of Egeus. Neither is it an alternative justice competing for validity as with ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta. In RadfordÃ¢â¬â¢s film, it is ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s justice that can make the best claim to validity, despite being uncomedic.In the films discussed above, the directors explore charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ conflicting notions of justice and resolve this conflict in different ways. ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta is an example of a character whose subversive justice repressed and realigned with the justice of the play. TeasdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation of the character bears little resemblance to the dark Amazon of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s opening scene. She appears content with her situation and no longer appears uncomfortable at TheseusÃ¢â¬â¢ side. Her change of heart is further represented by her change in costuming. Whereas her initial dress emphasised her violent Ã¢â¬ËothernessÃ¢â¬â¢, her billowing wedding dress makes her appear more congruous with the other characters. With both breasts apparently intact, she openly engages with the other characters in their mockery of the workersÃ¢â ¬â¢ play. By the end of the film Hippolyta and Theseus become just one of Ã¢â¬Å"all the couples threeÃ¢â¬ . Little is made of this HippolytaÃ¢â¬â¢s drastic change in behaviour. If it runs contrary to principles of psychological realism, we can accept it because it is dramatically correct. This is not to say that a radical interpretation of Hippolyta as a tragic figure is impossible. Reinhardt simply chooses to do something different; the comedic nature of the film requires Hippolyta to submit and so she does. However, her character has already allowed for the possibility of an alternative justice, neither false nor dominant. This Hippolyta conforms but may still say like Laertes, Ã¢â¬Å"I can rant as well as thouÃ¢â¬ . In a reversal of roles, Hoffman requires not Hippolyta to submit but Theseus. The conflict between Hippolyta and Theseus is reduced to a foil for the loversÃ¢â¬â¢ plight. In this film, it is suggest that Theseus subverts legal custom as a concession to Hipp olyta. Whatever tension that exists between the two evaporates and the comedic demands of the narrative are fulfilled. Both Hoffman and Reinhardt end the film with three analogous relationships. Despite sharing a similar outcome, the different representations of Hippolyta create two entirely different processes. HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta subverts legality rather than conforms to it and acts as a champion of the films Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ justice. The film therefore creates a homogenised single system of justice that denies the possibility of ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s alternatives. T.S. Eliot states that unity in Shakespeare can be found in its lack thereof: Ã¢â¬Å"Unity in Shakespeare but not universalityÃ¢â¬ . For its own purposes, this film creates universality of justice where it is lacking in the play text.Egeus can be similarly problematic for a director who (like Reinhardt or Hoffman) seeks to end the play light-heartedly. Reinhardt seems to completely ignore Egeus in the second ha lf of the play. Having fulfilled his function by instigating the action of the play, he disappears quietly. For Reinhardt, Egeus is more a plot mechanism than a character with any claim to psychology. Hoffman deviates from this formula only slightly. This Egeus has a character but only as a trope. He is dismissed by Theseus as the latter pardons Hermia and Lysander ; later, he expresses his disapproval by forsaking the wedding festivities. His later characterisation in HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s film only works to increase his resemblance to the father-figure archetype discussed above; he is subsequently discarded as a comic villain. However, an accentuation of the homoerotic reading discussed earlier would create an entirely different character and ending. This Egeus would be more closely comparable to ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolya: an Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ excluded from the comedic discourse of the film Ã¢â¬â in a word, Ã¢â¬ËtragicÃ¢â¬â¢.It is this type of character that we see in Radfo rdÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËMerchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬â¢. While ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta always threatens to undo the comedy of the film, RadfordÃ¢â¬â¢s Shylock actually achieves it. While his justice acts in opposition to the comedy of the film it also establishes a secondary, tragic reading. The final scene brings ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic arc to its climax and conclusion. Lynn CollinÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of Portia-as-Balthazar is confident and comfortable. She extols the benefits of mercy, Ã¢â¬Å"above the sceptred swayÃ¢â¬ and begs him to Ã¢â¬Å"tear up the bondÃ¢â¬ . However, CollinÃ¢â¬â¢s Portia never seems to display any hope that Shylock will accept her terms. She knows what the outcome of the trial will be and takes a position of moral superiority. The film consistently establishes binary oppositions of opulence and comfort against decay and squalor Ã¢â¬â the ghetto of Venice against the comfort of Belmont. Never is this binary more apparent than the dialogue between Porti a and Shylock in the final scene. Both characters are eloquent and present powerful arguments in their favour. In all other senses, however, their speech is quite different. PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation of Ã¢â¬Å"the quality of mercyÃ¢â¬ is lofty and poetic Ã¢â¬â the repetition of the Ã¢â¬ËsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËthÃ¢â¬â¢ sound pleasing and placative. In contrast, Shylock is deliberately offensive, referencing rats, pigs, urine and other distasteful subjects in his argument. Having been forced to forfeit his bond, Shylock is divested of his wealth and forced to convert to Christianity. As Shylock exits the court, there is a final shot in which members of the Jewish community remove his yarmulke and spit on him. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s ending removes Shylock from his own culture and raises doubts about the possibility or desirability of entering another. In one of the final shots of the film, the audience is shown a close-up of JessicaÃ¢â¬â¢s turquoise ring. Misinformed, ShylockÃ¢ â¬â¢s tragic revenge becomes all the more pathetic. His disgrace is echoed even in the insulated paradise of Belmont. The justice of the comedy becomes secondary to the justice of the film. That is, the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s character of Shylocks acts to infect and ambiguate the happiness of the ending.Together, the various adaptations of Egeus, Hippolyta and Shylock emphasise the fluidity of justice in Shakespearean comedy. Taken from a text that is entirely ambiguous regarding the nature of justice, directorial adaptation can realign, reposition and even ignore the justices of the text. Both versions of Egeus ignore his own justice and characterise him as a comic villain; his potential as a justified minor character is removed. The two different versions of Hippolyta indicate the interpretative power of the director seeking justification for a character. HoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta is simply an extension of the dominant comedic justice. In contrast, ReinhardtÃ¢â¬â¢s Hippolyta retains h er implicit claim to justice from Theseus. This Hippolyta retains the superpositioned justice of the playtext without explicit moralisation. Radford, on the other hand, chooses to position the dominant justice of the film against the justice of the comedy. Through his characterisation of Shylock, he emphasises the tragedy of the comedy and demonstrates the fluid justice of Shakespearean comedy.BIBLIOGRAPHY (FILMS)A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream (Michael Hoffman, Fox Searchlight, US, 1999)A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream (Max Reinhardt, Warner Bros. Pictures, US, 1935)William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Merchant of Venice (Michael Radford, Columbia Tristar, UK, 2004)BIBLIOGRAPHY (PRINT)Adler, J., A Life on the Stage: A Memoir, trans. Lulla Rosenfeld; New York, Knopf, 1999.Eliot, T. S., Selected Essays; London, Faber and Faber, 1951.Garrod, W. H., Keats; Oxford, Clarendon, 1939.Lantham, R. A., The Motives of Eloquence; New Haven, Yale University Press, 1976.Palmer, J., Political and Com ic Characters of Shakespeare; London, Macmillan, 1964.Powell, B. B., Classical Myth; Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall, 1998.Shakespeare, W., Hamlet; Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1980.Shakespeare, W., The Merchant of Venice; Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987.Shakespeare, W., A Midsummer Nights Dream; New York, Penguin Books, 1959.Zimmerman, S., Barroll, and Leeds (eds.), Shakespeare Studies New York, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2004.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Action Plan: Michael Watson is put in a hard place after his meeting with Alan Mathews because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree on how the classes should be taught. As a new teacher, Watson needs to listen to the critiques that Mathews gave him, but he also needs to stick to his own philosophies as a teacher. It is important to understand that students learn in many different ways, so he needs to find a balance that will satisfy both Alan Mathews and himself. Watson needs to make sure that his teaching strategies are truly effective and then be able to portray to MathewÃ¢â¬â¢s why his strategies are working for his students. Alan MathewÃ¢â¬â¢s thinks Michael WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s class is too easy and that he is not challenging his students. He thinks the students are not doing all of the homework, which is leading to lengthy discussions on irrelevant topics. It is clear that not all the objectives are being meet in the class, thus there is a need for better classroom management. Overall , Alan MathewÃ¢â¬â¢s wants to see Michael Watson as a more demanding teacher that challenges his studentÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to prepare them for college. To start, I would suggest that Michael Watson begins each unit or topic with a pre-test. Pre-tests allow teachers to evaluate what the students already know and checks to make sure that the lessons are actually challenging. After a pre-test is administered, teachers will gain a better understanding of how to construct valuable lessons that are within the students zone ofShow MoreRelatedWhat Motivates Employees According to over 40 Years of Motivation Surveys7793 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pages 1990). The idea is that goal setting produces high performance. The basic premiss of goal setting theory is that an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s conscious intentions (goals) are primary determinants of taskrelated motivation since goals direct their thoughts and actions (Locke, 1968). Results of goal/self-regulation research indicate two critical preconditi ons of a positive goal-performance relationship: acceptance of the goal assignment and provisions for performance feedback. More recently, cybernetic control (LordRead Moredigital marketing impact on consumer buying behavior13654 Words Ã |Ã 55 PagesCommunication on Customer Loyalty: An Integrative Model and Research Propositions Marketing February 2006 HELSINGIN KAUPPAKORKEAKOULU HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS WORKING PAPERS W-400 HELSINGIN KAUPPAKORKEAKOULU HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS PL 1210 FI-00101 HELSINKI FINLAND Ã © Marko Merisavo and Helsinki School of Economics ISSN 1235-5674 (Electronic working paper) ISBN-10: 952-488-006-7 ISBN-13: 978-952-488-009-1 Helsinki School of Economics HSE Print 2006 The Effects of DigitalRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 PagesServices, Pondicherry, India Printed in Great Britain on acid-free paper by Antony Rowe Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire ISBN 0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928335Ã¢â¬â4 978Ã¢â¬â0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928335Ã¢â¬â4 ISBN 0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928336Ã¢â¬â2 (Pbk.) 978Ã¢â¬â0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928336Ã¢â¬â1 (Pbk.) 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 3 FOREWORD Ã¢â¬Ë Michael Bromwich is an exemplar of all that is good about the British tradition of academic accounting. Serious in intent, he has striven both to illuminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction A Project is any undertaking that has definite, final objectives representing specified values to be used in the satisfaction of some service or need. The reason why companies undertake projects is because they come up with strategic intent, achieve better results and increase its competitive advantage. Project Success In the past projects success was measured using the Ã¢â¬Å"triple constraintÃ¢â¬ , delivering the project on time, within budget and to specification. Contemporary management of projects has shifted to being measured strategically. Consequently, the evaluation of the success of projects has also changed to incorporate parameters beyond the Ã¢â¬Å"triple constraintÃ¢â¬ . This led to project success being measured in fourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It classifies projects on the degree of product and process change in the project. Here three types of projects that can be defined: a) Breakthrough projects- where there is extensive product and process change. b) Platform projects- where there is moderate product and process change. c) Derivative projects- there is modest or incremental product and process change. 3. RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ Technology Adoption Life cycle- This is at the marketing strategy level and it targets customers and their characteristics. Here five types of customers are identified based on their expectations. a) Innovators Ã¢â¬â enthusiasts of new technology. b) Early adopters Ã¢â¬â visionaries and risk takers. c) Early Majority Ã¢â¬â the first customers in the mainstream market. d) Late Majority Ã¢â¬â conservatives who embrace change when it has become an industry standard. e) Laggards Ã¢â¬â resist change regardless of the pros or cons. Project strategy Is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"The perspective, direction and guidelines on what to do and how to do it; to achieve the highest competitive advantage and the best value from the project.Ã¢â¬ Most of these strategies are derived from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s intent or business plans which differ from department to department. Importance of project strategy 1. Helping in better results 2. Increasing value obtained from projects 3. Dynamic guidance of projectShow MoreRelatedProject Management : Project Strategic Management Essay1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages MGMT6054 Project Strategic Management Module #2 Organization Pressures, Structures NAME: Anisha Dmello STUDENT ID: 0783689 DATE: July 11th 2016 Table of Content 1. Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 3 2. Co-location Vs Virtual Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4 3. Perfect Project Circumstances Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 6 4. Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 7 5. References Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 8 Introduction Teams are an essentialRead MoreStrategic Project Management2969 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Projectification of the organisational world has resulted in apparent agreement that projects and project management are an efficient means of implementing organisational strategy.Ã¢â¬ (Haniff amp; Fernie 2009) | C11SP STRATEGIC PROJECT MANAGEMENT Read MoreOutline Of A Project Strategic Management1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMGMT6054- Project Strategic Management NAME: Osamudiamen Amadasun TEAM NAME: Fortitude DATE: September 28th 2015 PROFESSOR: David McKenna TITLE: Group, Stakeholder List MODULE: 3 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project is to identify and outline at least fifteen stakeholders that would be involved with the construction of a bridge from Port Stanley to Cleveland and a brief description how each stakeholder listed influences or is influenced by this project. 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It is with regret that this has not been possible due to the fact that I am not in current employment and as a result, the assignment has been adjusted to accommodate my (and others) circumstances. Instead, I have been asked to write a personal statement for each of the learning outcomes. This report is divided into four tasks and is a combinationRead MoreConducting a Strategic Management Project3187 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesIt requires the manager to build on their management skills and to focus on the requirement of implementing the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. GUIDED LEARNING HOURS The Guided learning hours for the Unit 7001 - Personal Development as a Strategic Manager of the Diploma in Strategic management Leadership are: 20 UNIT AIM AND LEARNING OUTCOMES: Aim This unit looks closely at the leadership skills that you need to operate effectively at a strategic level. 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It may be a way to reduce risks, cut costs and improve success rates. Being able to deliver projects on time and within budget often determines whether a company will get the next job or not. Projects have been around since beginning of time. Even a life cycleRead MoreStrategic Management Team Project : Team Report Final5048 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesStrategic Management Team Project: Team Report Final Wireless Ã¢â¬â Mobile Phone Mirroring Strategic Alliance: Sony Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation Eli Clanton Sita Giri University of West Georgia Management 6681 Dr. Douglas Turner July 20, 2015 Overview Why buy a car with satellite radio and a GPS system? Why pay a separate Wi-Fi service fee for your car? If you have a smartphone then you already have these features and more at your fingertips. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theCase Study on Cholecystectomy for Pathophysiology. Answer: Introduction This report aims to critically analyze the case study of Mrs. Beryl Hayes, who has been admitted to the ward for a laproscopic cholecystectomy. Beryl has undergone a surgery and is now still in the hospital. She has not been discharged from the hospital as no improvement is seen in her condition, and already 3 days had already passed by after the surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually done to remove the gall stones from the gall bladder. This process involves two methods- Open cholecystectomy and laparoscopic cholcystectomy. This report has focused on the laparoscopic method as per the given case study. This report will be discussing about the physiology and the pathophysiology of her conditions. Assessment has been done depending on the evidence based practice. The latter part of the discussion also throws light upon the type of care that has to be provided to the patient. The report also discusses about the discharge plan that has to be prepared for the patient and help him to return to his daily activities with ease. Discussion Pathophysiology Laparoscopic cholesystectomy is usually done to remove the gall bladder. It is usually done it patients, who have developed stones or infections in the gall bladder. Normally after a cholecystectomy, a person is unable to go home, the same day, but is generally discharged after a one night stay. Post operative complications may arise which can extend the stay in the hospital. A gallstone normally consists of bile saturated with cholesterol. The hypersaturation is caused due to the greater percentage of the cholesterol concentration than its solubility. This is mainly caused due to the hypersecreation of the cholesterol metabolism (Stinton and Shaffer. 2012). Loss of balance between the crystallization promoting proteins and crystallization inhibiting proteins, leads to the formation of the cholesterol crystals with bile (Joseph et al. 2012). Mucin is a glycoprotein that is secreted by the bilary epithelial cells, which has been documented by a pronucleating protein. The lessened degradation of mucin by the lysosomal enzymes is found to be responsible for the formation of the cholesterol crystals (Reshetnyak. 2012). The Loss of motility of the gall bladder muscular wall and excessive contraction of thee sphincter is also responsible for the formation of gall bladder crystals. The hypo motility of the muscular walls generates bilestasis for an extended peri od of time, including a lessened reservoir function. As the bile cannot flow, it leads to the accumulation of bile and a higher chance of stone formation. Improper filling and a higher percentage of hepatic bile diverted from the gall bladder to the bile duct can be caused due to the hypomotility (Pasternak et al. 2013). Sometimes Gallstones are made up of bilirubin. It is a chemical that is produced due to the breakdown of the red blood cells. Infection in the bile tract and an increased level of enterohepatic cycle of bilirubin can lead to the formation of bilirubin stone formation. Bilirubin stones are often called as the pigmented stones (Joseph et al. 2012). As the pressure on the gall bladder increases, the organ becomes larger in size, the blood supply decreases and repeated inflammation leads to acute cholecystitis. Cholecystitis may also give rise to gall stone pancreatitis which is a life threatening condition (Joseph et al. 2012). Sometimes the gall blader can be infected with microorganisms. An inflamed gallbladder can lead to gas gangerene and suffer from necrosis, which can ultimately lead to sepsis (Joseph et al. 2012). Patient assessment It is required to assess the secondary body function after the surgery, which includes a head to toe format. Any problem in any of this assessment may lead to adverse conditions. CNS- acute cholecystitis can lead to anoxic brain injury. With the severity of the condition it can lead to an elevated brain natriuretic peptide level. CVS Color- straw colored urination. Normally, the T-tube may drain up to 500 mL in the first 24 hours after surgery; drainage decreases to less than 200 mL in 2 or 3 days, and is minimal thereafter. Drainage may be tinged with blood initially, which can change to brown. Excessive drainage immediately (after 48 hours, drainage greater than 500 mL is considered excessive). Pulse- 125 (elevated pulse rate), which can be due to the trauma and fear for the pain post surgery. Blood pressure- 110/60, which signifies her blood pressure quite normal. Respiratory rate- 26, which is the standard RR for elderly patients like Ms Beryl. Chest pain- No chest pain had been reported, although patients might have chest pain due to aspiration and the respiratiory distresses in elderly patient like Ms .beryl. Cap refill- Prolonged cap refill time. A prolonged cap refill time in patient may signify shock and decreased rate of peripheral perfusion. Prolonged cap refill time may indicate peripheral artery disease. Abdominal- Abdominal muscles may ache, flatulent, bloating. Continuous bile flow in the upper intestinal tract can lead to esophagitis and gastritis. Diarrhea and colicky lower abdominal pain may result (Marker et al. 2012). Renal condition- No change has been observed in the arterial blood flow and the renal blood flow. If proper assessment is not done then acute renal failure may occur following laparoscopic surgery. Skin- The patient might experience severe itching; she will have three incisions in her stomach, skin remains itchy and dry. The wound must be kept clean and dry to prevent any infection. Regular dressing is required to avoid any infections. Infections may lead to fever and can increase the risks especially in the elderly patients (Kortram et al. 2012). Social/ family- A proper post operative care by the family can help to bring down the complications. The post operative period requires care as the patient cannot do intensive activities on her own, so it is important to provide him with support. Extensive physical exercise is not permitted as it can increase the complications. Prioritization of care Doctors are not responsible for the post operative care that has to be provided after cholecystectomy (Philibert, Nasca, Brigham and Shapiro. 2013). Nursing plans- To monitor effective breathing patterns- Breathing patterns may be ineffective, this can be due to pain, muscular impairment. The patient sometimes suffers from Tachypnea, holding breath. It is essential to observe the ausculate breath sounds, respiratory depths, to show how to splint incision to the patient. The patient should be provided support in the abdomen while coughing. To observe the color and the characteristics of the discharge- changing of the dressings when required, to change dressings, application of montegomery straps, proper disposal of the ostomy bags (cubas et al. 2012). Checking of the T- tubes and incisional drains, note the consistency and color of the stool, maintenance of the T tube in a closed collection system to prevent skin irritation and reduce the risk of contamination, sufficient tubing should be allowed to permit free turning facility (Yokoe et al. 2012). The vital signs should be monitored, mucous membrane should be assessed, signs of bleeding should be observed. The IQ, including the drainage frm the NG tube and the wound should be assessed properly. All the laboratory signs should be monitored properly (Doenges, Moorhouse and Murr. 2014). Post operative pain can be assessed and monitored and painkillers can be given consulting with the physician. Opoids can be given for moderate to severe pains. Fir the patients who have a high risk in pulmonary disease epidural LA and the opoids in combination can be administered (Bercy et al. 2013). Should check the risk of aspirations- Before any surgery, general anesthesia is used. It relaxes the muscles of the body and suppresses the sensation of pain. It can lead to aspiration as the person does not remain conscious to swallow or gag. Should help the patient to move and take measures against unintentional falls in elderly patients (Bercy et al. 2013). It should be kept in mind that the presence of the surgical incisions may lead to increased pain due to movement; therefore the patient becomes reluctant to any movement. Thus the patient should be encouraged to make movements. Several other factors are also there that has to be monitored. Discharge Plan Prescribe pain medicine- Application of the NSAIDs, to decrease the swelling and the pain, stool softener or laxatives to avoid constipation, iron tonics. It should be kept in mind that the NSAIDs can cause kidney problems or bleeding in the stomach, so a doctor should always be consulted with (Regimbeau et al. 2014). Surgical wounds should be looked upon carefully; the wounds should be kept dry and clean. Shower is permitted after 24 hours from the surgery. Easily digestible food has to be taken followed by enough fluids. Low fat foods should be consumed for about a month, as the gall bladder had a part in the digestion of the fat, so the body needs to be given some time to digest fat without the gall bladder (Dumphy et al. 2015). Plenty of liquids should be taken to prevent dehydration and to facilitate proper bowel movement and to prevent constipation. Avoid intense exercises or activities post operation. Need to provide a follow up within next two weeks from the surgery. Contact the healthcare provider if one has got fever, nausea, pain which is not relieved by the medicines, one has a sign of redness or welling around the incision or blood or puss is leaking out of the incision, having constant constipation or diarrhea, a doctor should also be contacted with if signs of vomiting persists, bowel movements are pale or black or bloody (Naoman et al. 2013). A medical help is also needed if the person is coughing up blood, feeling lightheadedness, having chest pain or the arms and the legs are feeling warm, tender and painful. Return to work is only permitted as soon as the pain is controlled and one feels comfortable to go outside. For some it is 5-7 days after the surgery (Philbert et al. 2013). Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has decreased the risks of the open surgery and can be managed easily with a proper management and a proper discharge plan. It has become the preferred treatment for cholecystitis. Laparoscopic method reduces the risk of surgery and helps the person to return back to its normal activity within a very small time, unlike open surgery. In spite of that patients often encounter with problem which can be avoided by providing proper medications and holistic care approach. Proper assessment of the patient, monitoring if the signs and symptoms and providing proper pharmacological and evidence based nursing care can bring about improvement in the deteriorating condition of the patient. From this report it can be understood what interventions can be done for Mr. Beryl to improve her conditions. References Berci, G., Hunter, J., Morgenstern, L., Arregui, M., Brunt, M., Carroll, B., Edye, M., Fermelia, D., Ferzli, G., Greene, F. and Petelin, J., 2013. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: first, do no harm; second, take care of bile duct stones. Cubas, R.F., Gmez, N.R., Rodriguez, S., Wanis, M., Sivanandam, A. and Garberoglio, C.A., 2012. Outcomes in the management of appendicitis and cholecystitis in the setting of a new acute care surgery service model: impact on timing and cost.Journal of the American College of Surgeons,215(5), pp.715-721. Doenges, M.E., Moorhouse, M.F. and Murr, A.C., 2014.Nursing care plans: Guidelines for individualizing client care across the life span. FA Davis. Dunphy, L.M., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B. and Thomas, D., 2015.Primary care: Art and science of advanced practice nursing. FA Davis. Joseph, M., Phillips, M.R., Farrell, T.M. and Rupp, C.C., 2012. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a higher bile duct injury rate: a review and a word of caution.Annals of surgery,256(1), pp.1-6. Kortram, K., van Ramshorst, B., Bollen, T.L., Besselink, M.G., Gouma, D.J., Karsten, T., Kruyt, P.M., Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A., Kelder, J.C., Tromp, E. and Boerma, D., 2012. Acute cholecystitis in high risk surgical patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CHOCOLATE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.Trials,13(1), p.7. Markar, S.R., Karthikesalingam, A., Thrumurthy, S., Muirhead, L., Kinross, J. and Paraskeva, P., 2012. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) vs. conventional multiport cholecystectomy: systematic review and meta-analysis.Surgical endoscopy,26(5), pp.1205-1213. Naumann, D.N., Quinn, M., Sivanesan, S., Farooq, U., Hendrickse, C.W. and Bowley, D.M., 2013. Preventing readmissions: are we doing enough?.British Journal of Healthcare Management,19(7), pp.348-353. Pasternak, A., Gil, K., Matyja, A., Gajda, M., Sztefko, K., Walocha, J.A., Kulig, J. and Thor, P., 2013. Loss of gallbladder interstitial Cajal?like cells in patients with cholelithiasis.Neurogastroenterology Motility,25(1). Philibert, I., Nasca, T., Brigham, T. and Shapiro, J., 2013. Duty-hour limits and patient care and resident outcomes: can high-quality studies offer insight into complex relationships?.Annual review of medicine,64, pp.467-483. Regimbeau, J.M., Fuks, D., Pautrat, K., Mauvais, F., Haccart, V., Msika, S., Mathonnet, M., Scott, M., Paquet, J.C., Vons, C. and Sielezneff, I., 2014. Effect of postoperative antibiotic administration on postoperative infection following cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: a randomized clinical trial.Jama,312(2), pp.145-154. Reshetnyak, V.I., 2012. Concept of the pathogenesis and treatment of cholelithiasis.World journal of hepatology,4(2), p.18. Stinton, L.M. and Shaffer, E.A., 2012. Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer.Gut and liver,6(2), p.172. van Baal, M.C., Besselink, M.G., Bakker, O.J., van Santvoort, H.C., Schaapherder, A.F., Nieuwenhuijs, V.B., Gooszen, H.G., van Ramshorst, B., Boerma, D. and Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, 2012. Timing of cholecystectomy after mild biliary pancreatitis: a systematic review.Annals of surgery,255(5), pp.860-866. Yokoe, M., Takada, T., Strasberg, S.M., Solomkin, J.S., Mayumi, T., Gomi, H., Pitt, H.A., Gouma, D.J., Garden, O.J., Bchler, M.W. and Kiriyama, S., 2012. New diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of acute cholecystitis in revised Tokyo Guidelines.Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences,19(5), pp.578-585.